Treatment options for vestibular disease depend on the reason for the problem.
In the case of idiopathic vestibular syndrome, treatment involves supportive care until the signs resolve on their own. Anti-vertigo medications like meclizine are often prescribed along with anti-nausea drugs. The treatment is similar when the cause was a stroke or vascular accident.
Dogs that have experienced trauma to the vestibular system may improve with supportive care (like those with idiopathic vestibular syndrome). Some are candidates for surgery to repair the damage. Hospitalization with intensive care may be needed during recovery.
If the vestibular disease is secondary to hypothyroidism, the vet will begin thyroid supplementation. Supportive care may be needed at first until the medication begins to work.
If the dog has an inner or middle ear infection, then the treatment may involve ear medications and/or oral medications to eradicate the source of the infections (often bacteria and/or yeast overgrowth). Dogs may have debris in the ears that must be removed under general anesthesia.
Tumors and cysts are usually diagnosed after advanced imaging like CT or MRI. In some cases, surgery can be done to remove the tumor or cyst. If a cancerous tumor is present, chemotherapy and/or radiation may be recommended.
Unfortunately, there is no sure way to prevent vestibular problems in dogs. If your dog is prone to ear infections, then regular ear cleaning with a vet-approved cleanser can help keep ear infections from developing. Annual or biannual veterinary exams and lab tests can help your vet detect subtle changes before your dog develops vestibular dysfunction.
If you notice signs of vestibular disease in your dog, do not wait for it to go away. Bring your dog to the vet as soon as you can. The sooner the underlying cause is found, the faster your dog can get proper treatment.